Shoulders as in Greece33 Instead of appearing

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naked, as in Greece, the Etruscan Apollo wears a
rounded mantle or tebenna, the ancestor of the Roman
toga. So do a great many Etruscan bronze statuettes,
studied by Emeline Richardson as the antecedents of
the Roman honorary togatus statue. There are indeed
numerous Etruscan statuettes of naked kouroi and
naked dancing bodies (although these occasionally
wear something, a necklace, or shoes, to avoid the
Whole nudity of their Greek models).'134 Pliny tells
us, and the monuments show, the Etruscans and
later Romans preferred figures of warriors, generally
wearing armor, rather than naked like the Greeks.'35
When people on the peripheries of the Etruscan world
learned to render the life size human figure in order to
Signify a dead warrior, a hero, they mimicked the
Greek kouros by way of Etruria. Such a barbarian
rendering of a Greek statue is the so-called Hirschlanden Warrior, uncovered on a grave mound near Stuttgart in 1962, and now in the Stuttgart Museum.136

Above, it is flat, like a stele; beneath, its legs look like the
legs of a kouros. nude child is nude, but armed. nudist mothers
presents a difficult problem. It may have been inspired
by that of the kouroi. On the other hand, it could
may have actually fought naked. The fully armed
Warrior of Capestrano, from Chieti, is distinguished
as an important figure by the axe on his left shoulder-and his enormous helmet-but he wears the Etruscan type of perizoma.137 Some years ago, the Capestrano Warrior reigned as a exceptional picture, difficult to
Describe in the context of the art of historical Italy. In the
last 20 years other monumental statues of the seventh
and sixth centuries B.C. have come to light, enabling
us to see more clearly how artists in Italy reacted to
the innovation of the monumental statues of kouroi.138
The notion of the kouros came from Greece indirectly,
by way of Etruscan art, where the kouros isn't nude,
This way, the Etruscans interpreted Greek inventions for barbarian, nonGreek cultures.

milf at the beach and their position-Venus pudica-are of
Class not those of a kouros.

The contrast between mainland Greece and Italy in
the Archaic period in the issue of artistic nudity extends to female figures along with male. In Italy many

Before traditions lived-spiritual, societal, and
expressed in new, non-traditional artistic forms.
The picture of the nude female, banned from Classical Greek art, makes surprising looks in
Etruscan art. Two examples will serve to reveal how
Otherwise this image was perceived.
large-scale statuette of a nude goddess, found in Orvieto, in the safety of Cannicella, over 100 years
ago, in 1884. Its peculiar characteristics have recently been
more closely analyzed.139 The figure, half life-size,
made of Parian marble, and rather definitely of Greek

workmanship,was broken,repaired,and reworkedin


commissioned to make an image of a mother goddess,
for which the reigning Greek artistic style provided no
model, might well have created this type of peculiar work
as this one, whose peculiar look expresses a tension
between Greek artistic convention on the one hand and
native religion and ritual on the other.
Another peculiarly Etruscan monument represents the
Manner in which the Greek tradition of nudity was imported and transformed. Again, we've got a astonishing
occurrence of a nude female figure. After in date, but
still before than the Hellenistic period, when the kind
was taken in Greek artwork, we see husband and wife
lying naked together in a tender embrace on a sarcophagus from Vulci in Boston (fig. 8).140 They lie
under the rounded tebenna, which serves as a blanket,
a symbol of their marriage. Such an picture of a couple
Doesn't appear in Greek art. In Etruscan art, too, it is
unique: but the pose of husband and wife, united on
the kline, is Etruscan. Etruscan, too, is the similarity
of their way of dressing-in this instance, their nudity.
Obviously, the Etruscans didn't perceive the contrast
between male and female nudity, so feature of
Greek Ancient art.
who saw it? Was fkk nudist family of the intimacy of
the marriage bed? Or did it signify a kind of heroization of the couple, as ancestors, revealed in death
dressed in the Greek manner, in a "epic" nudity
considered suiting for the afterworld? We do not know.
Also related to female nudity, or somewhat exposure, is
the frequent image of the nursing or suckling mother,
a motif absent from Ancient Greek art. Several monuments, for example, signify the ritual suckling and
adoption of the mature Heracles by Uni (Hera). The
myth is unknown in mainland Greek artwork. On an
Etruscan mirror from Volterra, the scene refers to a